SHARE TO:

TORASIC

  •  

    find pharmacy

    Komposisi:

    Ketorolac tromethamine

    Bentuk sediaan:

    Tablet salut selaput 10 mg Ampul 10 mg dan 30 mg

    Farmakologi:

    Ketorolac tromethamine merupakan suatu analgesik non-narkotik. Obat ini merupakan obat anti-inflamasi nonsteroid yang menunjukkan aktivitas antipiretik yang lemah dan anti-inflamasi. Ketorolac tromethamine menghambat sintesis prostaglandin dan dapat dianggap sebagai analgesik yang bekerja perifer karena tidak mempunyai efek terhadap reseptor opiat. Farmakokinetik (oral) k etorolac tromethamine diabsorpsi dengan cepat dan lengkap setelah pemberian oral dengan konsentrasi puncak rata-rata dalam plasma sebesar 0,87 mcg/mL setelah 50 menit pemberian dosis tunggal 10 mg. Waktu paruh plasma terminal 5,4 jam pada dewasa muda dan 6,2 jam pada orang lanjut usia. Total bersihan pada orang usia lanjut sedikit lebih rendah daripada dewasa muda. Ketorolac tromethamine diserap dengan cepat dan lengkap setelah pemberian intramuskular dengan konsentrasi puncak rata-rata dalam plasma sebesar 2,2 mcg/mL setelah 50 menit pemberian dosis tunggal 30 mg. Waktu paruh terminal plasma 5,3 jam pada dewasa muda dan 7 jam pada orang lanjut usia. Lebih dari 99% ketorolac terikat pada konsentrasi yang beragam. Farmakokinetik Ketorolac pada manusia setelah pemberian secara intramuskular dosis tunggal atau multipel adalah linear. Kadar steady state plasma dicapai setelah diberikan dosis tiap 6 jam dalam sehari.

    Indikasi:

    Untuk penatalaksanaan jangka pendek terhadap nyeri akut sedang sampai berat setelah prosedur bedah.

    shopping online

    Dosis:

    - Dosis oral yang dianjurkan adalah 10 mg tiap 4 - 6 jam untuk nyeri sesuai yang dibutuhkan, dosis melebihi 40 mg/hari tidak dianjurkan.

    - Interval dosis yang lebih panjang, c.g. 6 - 8 jam, disarankan pada pasien tua.

    - Kisaran dosis terendah direkomendasikan untuk pasien-pasien yang usianya diatas 65 tahun.

    - Pasien dengan gangguan ginjal ringan dapat menerima dosis yang lebih rendah dan kondisi ginjalnya harus dipantau ketat.

    - Ketorolac ampul ditujukan untuk pemberian injeksi intramuskular atau bolus intravena, dosis untuk bolus intravena harus diberikan selama minimal 15 detik.

    - Ketorolac ampul tidak boleh diberikan secara epidural atau spinal.

    - Mulai timbulnya efek analgesia setelah pemberian IV maupun IM serupa, sekitar 30 menit, dengan maksimum analgesia tercapai dalam 1 - 2 jam.

    - Durasi median analgesia umumnya 4 - 6 jam.

    - Dosis sebaiknya disesuaikan dengan keparahan nyeri dan respons pasien.

    - Lamanya terapi, pemberian dosis harian multipel yang terus-menerus secara intramuskular dan intravena tidak boleh lebih dari 2 hari karena efek samping dapat meningkat pada penggunaan jangka panjang.

    Kontraindikasi:

    Pasien hipersensitif dengan obat ini, karena ada kemungkinan sensitivitas silang, Ketorolac juga dikontraindikasikan pada pasien :

    - Penderita ulkus peptikum aktif.

    - Penyakit serebrovaskuler yang dicurigai maupun yang sudah pasti.

    - Diatesis hemoragik termasuk gangguan koagulasi.

    - Sindrom polip nasal lengkap atau parsial, angioedema atau bronkospasme.

    - Terapi bersamaan dengan ASA dan NSAID lain.

    - Hipovolemia akibat dehidrasi atau sebab lain.

    - Gangguan ginjal derajat sedang sampai berat (kreatinin serum > 160 mmol/L).

    - Riwayat asma.

    - Pasien pasca operasi dengan risiko tinggi terjadi perdarahan atau hemostasis inkomplit, pasien dengan antikoagulan termasuk heparin dosis rendah (2500 – 5000 unit setiap 12 jam).

    - Terapi bersamaan dengan ospentyfilline, probenecid atau garam lithium.

    - Selama kehamilan, persalinan, melahirkan atau laktasi.

    - Anak < 16 tahun.

    - Pasien yang mempunyai riwayat sindrom Stevens-Johnson atau ruam vesikulobulosa.

    - Pemberian neuraksial (epidural atau intratekal).

    - Pemberian profilaksis sebelum bedah mayor atau intra-operatif jika hemostasis benar-benar dibutuhkan karena tingginya resiko perdarahan.

    Peringatan dan Perhatian:

    - Telah dilaporkan adanya peningkatan urea nitrogen serum dan kreatinin serum

    - Ketorolac menghambat agregasi trombosit dan dapat memperpanjang waktu perdarahan.

    - Bisa terjadi peningkatan borderline fungsi hati.

    - Pernah dilaporkan terjadinya retensi cairan dan edema, hati-hati pada pasien gagal jantung, hipertensi atau kondisi serupa.

    Efek Samping:

    - Saluran cerna : diare, dispepsia, nyeri gastrointestinal, nausea.

    - Susunan Saraf Pusat : sakit kepala, pusing, mengantuk, berkeringat (insiden 1% atau kurang), depresi, mulut kering, euforia, haus berlebihan, parestesia, stimulasi, vertigo.

    - Gastrointestinal : konstipasi, rasa penuh, kelainan fungsi hati, melena, ulkus peptikum, perdarahan rektal, stomatitis, muntah, flatus.

    - Respirasi : asma, dispnea.

    - Dermatologik : pruritus, urtikaria.

    - Kardiovaskular : vasodilatasi, pucat.

     

    find pharmacy

    TORASIC

     

    Composition:

    Ketorolac tromethamine

    Presentation:

    - Box containing two strips of ten 10 mg membrane coated tablets - 10 mg and 30 mg ampoules

    Pharmacology:

    Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-narcotic analgesic. This drug is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that shows weak antipyretic activity and anti-inflammatory. Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and can be considered a peripheral analgesic because it does not have effect on opiate receptors. Pharmacokinetics (oral) Ketometolac tromethamine is absorbed quickly and completely after oral administration with peak concentration plasma average of 0.87 mcg / mL after 50 minutes giving a single dose of 10 mg. The plasma terminal half-life is 5.4 hours in young adults and 6.2 hours on elderly people. Total clearance in elderly people is slightly lower than for young adults. Ketorolac tromethamine is absorbed quickly and completely after intramuscular administration with a plasma peak peak concentration of 2.2 mcg / mL after 50 minutes a single dose of 30 mg. Plasma terminal half-life is 5.3 hours in young adults and 7 hours in elderly people. More than 99% of ketorolac is bound to varying concentrations. Ketorolac pharmacokinetics in humans after intramuscular administration of single or multiple doses is linear. Plasma steady state levels are achieved after given a dose every 6 hours a day.

    Indications:

    For short-term management of moderate to severe acute pain after a surgical procedure. To help improve endurance and help relieve cold symptoms, among others: cough, runny nose.

    Contraindications:

    Hypersensitive patients with this drug, because there is a possibility of cross sensitivity, Ketorolac is also contraindicated in patients: - Patients with active peptic ulcer. - Suspected or definite cerebrovascular disease. - Hemorrhagic diathesis including coagulation disorders. - Complete or partial nasal polyp syndrome, angioedema or bronchospasm. - Therapy together with ASA and other NSAIDs. - Hypovolemia due to dehydration or other causes. - Moderate to severe renal impairment (serum creatinine> 160 mmol / L). - History of asthma. - Postoperative patients with a high risk of bleeding or incomplete hemostasis, patients with anticoagulants include low-dose heparin (2500 - 5000 units every 12 hours). - Therapy together with ospentyfilline, probenecid or lithium salt. - During pregnancy, labor, childbirth or lactation. - Children <16 years old. - Patients who have a history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or vesiculobulose rash. - Neuraxial (epidural or intrathecal) administration. - Provision of prophylaxis before major or intra-operative surgery if hemostasis is really needed because of the high risk of bleeding.

    shopping online

    Dosage:

    - The recommended oral dose is 10 mg every 4 - 6 hours for pain as needed, doses exceeding 40 mg / day are not recommended. - Longer dose intervals, c.g. 6-8 hours, recommended for elderly patients. - The lowest dose range is recommended for patients over the age of 65 years. - Patients with mild kidney disorders can receive lower doses and their kidney condition must be monitored closely. - Ketorolac ampoule is intended for intravenous or bolus intravenous injection, the dose for intravenous boluses should be given for at least 15 seconds. - Ketorolac ampoule should not be given epidurally or spinal. - The effect of analgesia begins after similar IV or IM administration, about 30 minutes, with maximum analgesia achieved within 1-2 hours. - The duration of the median analgesia is generally 4-6 hours. - The dosage should be adjusted to the severity of the pain and the patient's response. - Duration of therapy, continuous multiple daily intramuscular and intravenous doses should not exceed 2 days due to side effects can increase in long-term use.

    Warning and Precautions:

    - There has been reported an increase in serum nitrogen urea and serum creatinine - Ketorolac inhibits platelet aggregation and can prolong bleeding time. - Can increase borderline liver function. - Never reported fluid retention and edema, caution in patients with heart failure, hypertension or similar conditions.

    Adverse events:

    - Gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastrointestinal pain, nausea. - Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, sweating (incidence of 1% or less), depression, dry mouth, euphoria, excessive thirst, paresthesias, stimulation, vertigo. - Gastrointestinal: constipation, full feeling, abnormal liver function, melena, peptic ulcer, rectal bleeding, stomatitis, vomiting, flatus. - Respiration: asthma, dyspnea. - Dermatology: pruritus, urticaria. - Cardiovascular: vasodilation, pale.

    Drugs Interaction:

    Giving Ketorolac together with methotrexate must be careful because some drugs that inhibit prostaglandin synthesis are reported to reduce methotrexate clearance, thus allowing increased toxicity of methotrexate. Warfarin. Shared use of NSAIDs with warfarin is associated with occasional heavy bleeding fatal. The exact interaction mechanism is unknown, but may include increased bleeding from NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcerations, or additional effects of anticoagulants by warfarin and inhibition of platelet function by NSAIDs. Ketorolac should be used in combination only if absolutely necessary and these patients must be closely monitored. ACE inhibitors. Like other NSAIDs, Ketorolac can increase the risk of kidney problems associated with it with the use of ACE inhibitors, especially in patients who have experienced volume depletion. Diuretics. Ketorolac reduces the diuretic response to furosemide approximately 20% of healthy people are normovolemic. Nephrotoxic drugs. The use of drugs with nephrotoxic activity should be avoided when taking Ketorolac for example aminoglycoside antibiotics. Anti-epileptic drugs. There have been reports of sporadic seizures during the use of Ketorolac along with medications anti-epilepsy. Psychoactive drugs. Hallucinations have been reported if Ketorolac is given to patients who are taking psychoactive drugs.

Please login or register to post comments.