Oleh admin kalbemed pada January 29, 2018 06:00

Selain Sinbiotik, Apa Nutrisi yang Bermanfaat untuk Saluran Cerna?

Seperti diketahui bersama saluran cerna merupakan saluran yang mempunyai  fungsi  selain sebagai tempat untuk masuknya nutrisi ke dalam tubuh, juga berfungsi sebagai barier  terhadap lingkungan luar tubuh. Dengan kondisi yang seperti tersebut  maka diperlukan suatu integritas dan  daya tahan  dari mukosa  saluran cerna sendiri.

Selain probiotik dan prebiotik yang saat ini telah banyak diketahui  manfaat baik untuk kesehatan dan  fungsi saluran cerna, beberapa komponen atau zat yang mampu memberikan manfaat untuk saluran cerna diantarannya adalah:

a. Glutamin

Glutamin membantu sintesa nukleotida, dan  sumber substrat untukproses glukoneogenesis dan  fungsi lain,. Dalam saluran cerna glutamin  berguna sebagai bahan bakar  untuk membantu “turn-over” epitel  saluran cerna, limfosit, fibroblast, dan retikulosit.  Sedangkan studi pada hewan coba  menunjukkan bahwa glutamin mampu menurunkan permeabilizas mucosa saluran cerna, mencegah atrofi villa pada tifus yang diberikan nutrisi parenteral,  meningkatkan   ketrsediaan antioksidan (GPx), dan mencegah kerusakan molekul lemak (proksidsi lemak).
Sedangkan studi  pada manusia cukup banyak, diantarannya adalah: untuk mencegah antrofi mucosa pada pasien yang diberikan nutrisi  parenteral, mempercepat penyembuhan mucosa  pada psien pasca radioterapi, memperbaiki sistem imán,  serta mencegah terjadinya translokasi bacterial dan terjadinya sepsis.

b. Arginin
Arginin merupakan asam amino esensial, yang berguna diantranya untuk transportasi, penyimpanan, eksresi dari nitrogen.  Arginin juga merupakan prekrusor NO yang mempunyai banyak fungsi. NO mempunyai potensi baik sebagai anti-maupun proinflamasi yang lemah, homeostatic,  danbanyak diketemukandiberbagai organ seperti makrofag, neutrofil, sel mat, sel hati dsb. Studi pada hewan coba menunjukkan bahwa suiplementasi arginine mencegah kerusakan mukosa, memperbaiki perfusi mukosa, menambhak ketebalan mukosa usus, dsb.
Studi pada manusia menunjukkan bahwa mampu menghambat pertumbuhan  G. lamblia, suplementasi arginin pada bayi lahir sangat rendah menunjukan mampu mencegah terjadintya NEC (necrotizing enterocolitis) dan secar keselurhan  meta analisis  suplementasi argini  mampu memperpendek lama perawatan di ruamh sakit,  menurunkan terjadinya infeksi,  dan menurunakan risiko kematian.

c. Vitamin A
Vitamin A, yang merupakan vitamin yang larut dalam lemak, mempunyai fungsi utama dalam menjaga integritas  sel-sel epitel,  fungsi I munitas, dan fungsi retina.  Seperi diketahui, defisiensi vitamin A akan menyebabkan terjadinya  kerusakan epitel kolumna, keratinisasi sel-sel epitel pada berbagai system dalam tubuh manusia. Studi pada hewan coba menunjukkan bahwa  suplementasi vitamin A mampu mencegah kerusakan mukosa usus pada tikus  yang terinfeksi rotavirus, suplementasi vitamin A juga mampu mecegah kerusakanmukosa pada pemberian Methotrexate, dsb.
 
d. Zinc
Zinc , trace mineral dan merupakan komponenen utama dari berbagai “metalloenzyme”  termasuk alkalifosfatse, karboksipeptidase, DNA-RNA sintetase, dsb.
Studi penggunaan zinc untuk saluran cerna sudah cukup banyak, bahwakn badan kesehatan dunia saat ini juga merekomendasikan suplementasi zinc antara 10 – 20 mg/ hari selama 14 hari  menurunkan kematian akibat diare dan mencegah  kekambuhan diare.(Red)


Image: Ilustrasi
Refernsi:
1. Duggan C, Gannon J, Walker WA. Protective Nutrition and Functional Foods for  the Gastrointestinal Tract. AJCN 2002:75:789-808.
2. WHO-Unicef,. Joint  Statement. Clinical Management of Acute Diarrhea. World Health Organization-2002.

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