Oleh Admin Kalbe Medical pada October 12, 2017 07:30

Defisiensi Vitamin D Dikaitkan dengan Peningkatan Risiko Bayi Kecil untuk Usia Kehamilan

Studi baru yang dipublikasikan oleh BMJ Open menemukan 1,58 peningkatan risiko melahirkan bayi kecil untuk usia kehamilan pada wanita hamil dengan defisiensi vitamin D (kadar vitamin D <20 ng/mL). Bayi dengan usia kehamilan kecil biasanya di bawah persentil 10 untuk berat badan dan tinggi badan. Bayi yang kecil untuk usia kehamilan bisa lahir prematur, cukup bulan, atau lebih bulan. Bayi kecil untuk usia kehamilan terjadi jika janin tidak mendapat nutrisi yang adekuat, biasanya karena kondisi yang disebut hambatan pertumbuhan di dalam rahim (intrauterine growth restriction/IUGR). IUGR dapat disebabkan oleh sejumlah faktor, meliputi genetik, penyakit maternal, dan/atau perilaku yang bisa dimodifikasi, seperti merokok. Sekitar 9,7% bayi baru lahir adalah bayi kecil untuk usia kehamilan.

Para peneliti telah menemukan kaitan antara vitamin D dan komplikasi beberapa kehamilan, seperti preeklampsia, kelahiran prematur, dan keguguran. Namun, penemuan dari penelitian yang mengeksplorasi kaitan antara vitamin D dan bayi yang kecil untuk usia kehamilan memberikan hasilnya bertentangan. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan suatu meta-analisis yang meneliti apakah defisiensi vitamin D pada wanita hamil dikaitkan dengan bayi kecil untuk usia kehamilan/gestasional.

Pencarian komprehensif dari Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embrase, dan Elsevier ScienceDirect telah dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi artikel yang melaporkan studi kohort prospektif di Inggris, dengan laporan terakhir yang disertakan dipublikasikan pada Februari 2017. Total 13 studi kohort dianalisis dengan sampel 28.285 individu dari 7 negara, dengan kehamilan tunggal dan tidak ada riwayat penyakit kronik. Pooled overall OR untuk bayi yang lahir kecil untuk usia kehamilan adalah 1,588 (95% CI 1,138-2,216, p<0,01) untuk wanita dengan defisiensi vitamin D. Prevalensi defisiensi vitamin D selama kehamilan bervariasi, dari 13,2%-77,3%.

Dari hasil meta-analisis ini disimpulkan bahwa defisiensi vitamin D pada wanita hamil dikaitkan dengan peningkatan risiko bayi kecil untuk usia kehamilan. (EKM)

Image : Ilustrasi
Referensi:
1.Meta-analysis discovers vitamin D deficient mothers are more likely to birth smail infants [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Sept 29]. Available from: https://www.vitamindcouncil.org/meta-analysis-discovers-vitamin-d-deficient-mothers-are-more-likely-to-birth-small-infants/
2.Chen Y, Zhu B, Wu X, Li S, Tao F. Association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and small for gestational age: Evidence from meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e016404. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016404.

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